DIY Micromitter Stereo FM Mai watsawa

A ƙarshe! - Mai watsa FM sitiriyo shine abun ciye-ciye don daidaitawa.

Wannan sabon sitiriyo FM Micromitter yana iya watsa kyawawan alamun sigina sama da nisan mil 20. Yana da kyau don watsa kiɗa daga CD ɗin kunnawa ko daga kowane tushe don haka za'a iya ɗauke shi a wani wuri.

Misali, idan baka da na'urar CD a cikinka, zaka iya amfani da Micromicer din don yada sakonni daga CD ɗin da ke ɗauka zuwa rediyon motarka. A madadin, zaku so kuyi amfani da Micromicer don watsa alamun siginan daga ɗakin CD ɗin ɗakin ku zuwa mai karɓar FM wanda ke wani sashe na gidan ko a wurin tafkin.

Saboda ya dogara ne akan guda IC, wannan naúrar kayan ciye-ciye ne don ginawa kuma ya dace da sauƙi cikin ƙaramin akwatin amfani da filastik. Tana yada rediyon rediyo (watau 88-108MHz) domin a karɓi siginar ta a kowane daidaitaccen kyautar FM ko rediyo mai ɗaukuwa.

Koyaya, ba kamar siginar FM da ta gabata da aka buga a SILICON CHIP ba, wannan sabon saiti baya canzawa sosai akan rukunin watsa shirye-shiryen FM. Madadin haka, ana amfani da hanyar DIP sau 4 don zaɓar ɗayan adadin saiti guda 14. Ana samun waɗannan a cikin jeri biyu rufe daga 87.7-88.9MHz da 106.7-107.9MHz a cikin matakan 0.2MHz.

Babu murhun da za'a kunna

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Hoto 1: zango mai zane na Rohm BH1417F sitiriyo FM mai watsawa IC. Rubutun yayi bayanin yadda yake aiki.

Mun fara buga jigilar sitiriyo ta FM a cikin SILICON CHIP a watan Oktoba 1988 kuma mun bi wannan sabon fasalin a watan Afrilun 2001. An sake shi cikin Minimitter, waɗannan sigogin da suka gabata sun dogara ne da sanannen Rohm BA1404 IC wanda ba a ƙara samarwa ba.

A kan waɗannan raka'a biyu na baya, tsarin jeri yana buƙatar yin gyara da ingantaccen gyaran murfin kwalliyar kwalliya tsakanin coils biyu (matattarar oscillator da murhun matatar), saboda fitowar RF ta dace da mitar da aka zaɓa akan mai karɓar FM. Koyaya, wasu masu ginin suna da wahala tare da wannan saboda daidaitawar ya kasance mai matukar da hankali.

Musamman, idan kuna da dijital (watau haɗaɗɗun) mai karɓa ta FM, dole ne ku saita mai karɓar zuwa wani mitar kuma sannan a hankali sauƙaƙa mitar mai watsawa ta “ta”. Bugu da kari, an sami wasu mu'amala tsakanin mai gyara oscillator da kuma daidaita yadda ake daidaita coil kuma wannan ya rikitar da wasu mutane.

Wannan matsalar ba ta wanzu a cikin wannan sabon ƙira, tunda babu tsarin jeri na mita. Madadin haka, duk abin da zaka yi shine saita mitar mai amfani ta amfani da hanyar DIP sau 4 sannan ka bugo bugun maimaitaccen shirin akan gidan rediyon ka.

Bayan wannan, lamari ne da za a daidaita coil guda yayin saita mai watsa, don saitawa don aiki na RF daidai.

Ingantaccen bayani dalla-dalla

Sabuwar FM Stereo Micromicer yanzu tana kulle-kulle ne wanda yake nuna cewa rukunin baya ɓata lokaci lokaci. Bugu da kari, murdiya, rabuwa, sitiriyo-da-sauti rabo da kulle sitiriyo sun inganta sosai akan wannan sabon rukunin idan aka kwatanta da abubuwan da aka kirkira a baya. Kwamitin dalla-dalla na da cikakkun bayanai.

BH1417F mai ba da wuta IC

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Fig.2: wannan makircin da makasudin matakin fitarwa na nuna matakin da aka haɗa (pin 5). Msarfafa 50ms a kusan 3kHz yana haifar da haɓakar amsawa, yayin da 15kHz low pass roll off ya haifar da faduwar amsa a sama da 10kHz.

A zuciyar sabon ƙira shine BH1417F FM mai ɗaukar hoto IC wanda kamfanin Rhom Corporation ya yi. Kamar yadda aka ambata a baya, yana maye gurbin mai wuya yanzu don samo BA1404 da aka yi amfani dashi a cikin ƙirar da ta gabata.

Fig.1 yana nuna fasalin ciki na BH1417F. Ya ƙunshi duk aikin sarrafawar da ake buƙata don watsawa sitiriyo FM da kuma ɓangaren kula da kristal wanda ke ba da madaidaiciyar kullewar mita.

Kamar yadda aka nuna, BH1417F ya haɗa da bangarorin sarrafa sauti biyu daban, don tashoshin hagu da dama. Ana amfani da siginar sauti ta hagu-dama zuwa fil 22 na guntu, yayin da ake amfani da siginar tashar madaidaiciya akan pin 1. Ana amfani da siginar sauti nan take zuwa wurin da aka gabatar da hankali wanda ke haɓaka waɗancan mittuna a sama da 50ms na dindindin (watau, wadancan mitutukan sama da 3.183kHz) kafin watsawa.

Ainihi, ana amfani da fifiko don inganta siginar-zuwa-amo rabo daga siginar FM da aka karɓa. Yana aiki ta amfani da keɓaɓɓen daɗaɗɗar da'ira a cikin mai karɓar don rage girman tasirin tashe-tashen hankula bayan rushewar, don a mayar da amsar mitar zuwa al'ada. A lokaci guda, wannan shima yana rage zafin hiss ɗin da zai bayyana a siginar.

An saita adadin fifitawa ta ƙimar ƙarfin masu haɗin da aka haɗa zuwa fil 2 & 21 (bayanin kula: ƙimar lokacin akai = 22.7kΩ x ƙimar ƙarfin). A cikin yanayinmu, muna amfani da ƙarfin 2.2nF don saita fifiko zuwa 50μ wanda shine ma'aunin FM na Ostiraliya.

Hakanan an bayar da iyakance alamar sigina a cikin sashin bayanan fifiko. Wannan ya ƙunshi ɗaukar alamun siginar a saman wata ƙofar, don hana ɗaukar abubuwa masu zuwa. Wancan zai hana wucewar girma da rage murdiya.

Ana yin amfani da alamun da aka riga aka jaddada don tashoshin hagu da dama ta hanyar matakai biyu na ƙananan matattara (LPF), wanda ke juyar da amsa sama da 15kHz. Wannan rol ɗin ya zama dole don taƙaita bandwidth na siginar FM kuma iyakancewa ce ta mitar mitar mai watsa FM ta kasuwanci.

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Hoto.3: mitar zangon siginar FM sitiriyo mai haɗawa. Ka lura da yanayin sautin matukan jirgi a 19kHz.

Abubuwan da aka shigo da su daga LPFs hagu da dama an sanya su a cikin mayalli (MPX). Ana amfani da wannan don ƙirƙirar jimlar (hagu tare da dama) da kuma banbanci (alamun hagu) dama waɗanda aka daidaita su akan mai ɗaukar 38kHz. Ana ɗaukar mai ɗaukar dila (ko cire shi) don samar da siginar mai ɗaukar mara nauyi sau biyu. Bayan haka an haɗu da shi cikin toshe (+) toshe tare da sautin matukan jirgi 19kHz don ba da fitowar kayan siginar (tare da cikakken sitiriyo) a fil 5.

An saita lokaci da matakin sautin matukan jirgi 19kHz ta amfani da capacitor a fil 19.

Fig.3 yana nuna bakancin siginar sitiriyo mai haɗawa. Alamar (L + R) ta ƙunshi kewayon mitar daga 0-15kHz. Da bambanci, siginar mai ɗaukar maraba mai ɗaukar hoto (LR) yana da ƙananan sideband wanda ya ƙaru daga 23-38kHz da babban sideband daga 38-53kHz. Kamar yadda aka fada, mai ɗaukar 38kHz baya nan.

Sautin matukin jirgi mai lamba 19kHz yana nan, duk da haka, kuma ana amfani da wannan a cikin mai karɓar FM don sake fasalin mai shigo da kaya na 38kHz saboda siginar sitiriyo za'a iya sauya shi.

Ana samun siginar mahara na 38kHz da sautin jirgi mai lamba 19kHz ta hanyar rarraba 7.6.cMtor kristoc mai okcillator wanda ke kan fil 13 & 14. Mitar an raba ta farko sau hudu don samun 1.9MHz sannan a raba ta 50 don samun 38kHz. Wannan sai ya kasu kashi biyu don samun sautin matukin jirgi mai lamba 19kHz.

Bugu da kari, siginar 1.9MHz ta kasu kashi 19 don bayar da siginar 100kHz. Ana amfani da wannan siginar zuwa na'urar gano lokaci wanda kuma yake sanya idanu kan abin da zai dace na aikin. Wannan tsararren shirin ne ainihin mai rarraba shirin wanda ke fitar da ƙimar rarraba siginar RF.

Matsayin rabo na wannan counter an saita shi ta matakan ƙarfin lantarki a cikin abubuwan shigarwar D0-D3 (fil 15-18). Misali, lokacin D0-D3 duk sunada yawa, counter na shirin zai raba ta 877. Saboda haka, idan RF oscillator tana gudana a 87.7MHz, fitowar kayan daga counter zata zama 100kHz kuma wannan yayi daidai da mitar da aka rarrabashi daga 7.6MHz oscillator kristal (watau, 7.6MHz ya kasu kashi 4 ya kasu 19).

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Hoto na 4: cikakken da'irar Stereo FM Micromitter. DIP tana sauya S1-S4 saita mitar RF oscillator kuma wannan ana sarrafa shi ta hanyar PLL a lamba 7 na IC1. Wannan fitowar tana fitar da Q1 wanda a biyun yana amfani da ƙarfin lantarki zuwa VC1 don canza ƙarfinsa. Abinda aka haɗa sauti a pin 5 yana samar da daidaituwa na mitar.

A aikace, fitowar mai gano lokaci a lamba 7 tana samar da siginar kuskure don sarrafa kwayar cutar da take amfani da diode varicap. Wannan varicap diode (VC1) ana nuna shi akan babban hoton zane mai hoto (Fig.4) kuma yana ɗaukar ɓangaren Rc oscillator a fil 9. Matsakaicinta na oscillation an ƙaddara shi da ƙimar aikin da duka ƙarfinsa daidai yake.

Tun da varicap diode ya zama wani ɓangare na wannan ƙarfin, za mu iya musanya mitar RF oscillator ta bambanta darajar ta. A cikin aiki, ƙarfin ƙarfin varicap diode ya bambanta gwargwadon ƙarfin wutar lantarki DC wanda aka yi amfani da shi ta hanyar fitowar mai gano ƙira na lokaci na PLL.

A aikace, mai gano lokaci yana daidaita wutar lantarki ta hanyar varicap domin yaduwar RF oscillator mita shine 100kHz a fitarwa na shirin. Idan mitar RF ta yi tsayi, fitowar mitar daga mai tsara shirin zai tashi kuma mai gano lokaci zai “ga” kuskure tsakanin wannan da kuma 100kHz wanda aka bayar ta hanyar rarraba kristal.

Sakamakon haka, mai gano lokaci yana rage ƙarfin lantarki na DC wanda aka amfani da dicde varicap, don haka yana ƙaruwa da ƙarfin sa. Kuma wannan bi da bi yana canza agogo mai oscillator don dawo da shi cikin "kulle".

Idan aka sake magana, idan mitar RF tayi ƙasa da kasa, kayan aikin raba kayan aikin zai zama ƙasa da 100kHz. Wannan yana nufin cewa mai gano lokaci shine ƙara ƙarancin wutar lantarki na DC zuwa mai varicap don rage ƙarfinsa da haɓaka mitar RF. A sakamakon haka, wannan tsari na gamsarwa na PLL yana tabbatar da cewa fitowar mai rarraba shirin har yanzu tana tsayawa ne a 100kHz kuma hakan yana tabbatar da kwanciyar hankali na oscillator RF.

Ta canza mai rabawa na shirin za mu iya canza mitar RF. Don haka, alal misali, idan muka saita mai raba kaya zuwa 1079, dole ne RF oscillator ta yi aiki a 107.9MHz don fitarwa mai rarrabawa mai tsari zai kasance a 100kHz.

Matsakaici mai daidaituwa

Tabbas, don watsa bayanan sauti, muna buƙatar musanya sabuntawa da oscillator RF. Muna yin hakan ta hanyar yin amfani da wutar lantarki ta amfani da wutar lantarki ta hanyar amfani da fitinar ta amfani da fitowar siginar ta pin 5.

Lura, duk da haka, matsakaicin mitar RF oscillator (watau, m ɗin mitar) ya kasance tsayayye, kamar yadda mai tsara shirye-shirye (ko kuma shirin shirye-shiryen) aka saita. Sakamakon haka, siginar FM da aka watsa ta bambanta ko dai ta mitar mitar gwargwadon matakin siginar da aka haɗa - watau, an daidaita saurin mita.

Zabin Banza

Mun tsara kwamiti na PC saboda ya iya karɓar mitar tace daban a ƙarar 11 RF na IC1. Wannan matatar tana yin ta Soshin Electronics Co. kuma ana yiwa lakabi da GFWB3. Filteraramin filteraramar 3-tashar madaidaiciyar bandarfin bandwid ɗin yana aiki a cikin siginar mitar 76-108MHz.

Amfanin yin amfani da wannan matattara shine cewa tana da yawan steeper rolloff sama da ƙasa da ƙungiyar FM. Wannan yana haifar da karancin katsewar gefe a wasu lokuta. Theadewa shine matattara yana da wahalar samu.

A aikace, matattarar ya maye gurbin capacitor 39pF, tare da tashar tashar tsakiyar duniya ta matatar da ke hade da komputa na PC. Wannan shine dalilin da ya sa akwai rami tsakanin ƙarfin 39pF capacitor. Ba a buƙatar ƙarfin 39pF da 3.3pF tare da injiniya na 68nH da 680nH, yayin da aka maye gurbin inductor na 68nH tare da haɗin waya.

Cikakkun bayanai

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Hoto.5 (a): wannan zane yana nuna yadda aka shigar sassan ɓangaren dutsen huɗu a gefe na tagulla na kwamatin PC. Tabbatar cewa IC1 & VC1 suna daidaitacce.

Duba yanzu zuwa Fig.4 don cikakken kewayewar Stereo FM Micromitter. Kamar yadda aka zata, IC1 ta samar da babban ɓangaren keken tare da ɗimbin wasu abubuwan da aka haɗa don kammala aikin jigilar sitiriyo FM.

Ana ciyar da siginar shigarwar sauti ta hagu da dama ta cikin 1μF bipolar capacitors sannan kuma ana amfani da shi zuwa da'irorin attenuator wanda ya ƙunshi tsayayyen tsayayyen 10k and da kuma 10kΩ trimpots (VR1 & VR2). Daga can, ana haɗa alamomin cikin fil 1 & 22 na IC1 ta hanyar 1μF masu ƙarfin lantarki.

Ka lura cewa an haɗa ƙarfin lantarki na biyun a cikin 1 areF don hana kwararawar DC a halin yanzu saboda kowane hanyar DC da ke faruwa a yayin fitar da siginar. Hakanan, capacarfin 1μF a kan fil 1 & 22 yana da mahimmanci don hana DC halin yanzu a cikin abubuwan farashi, tunda waɗannan fil ɗin shigarwar biyu suna nuna ƙima a cikin rabin bayarwa. Wannan hanyar samar da rabin-kayan aikin an ƙawata ta amfani da 10μF capacitor a fil 4 na IC1.

Masu nuna fifiko na 2.2nF sune suke kan fil 2 & 21, yayin da masu amfani da 150pF masu karfi a fil 3 & 20 suna saita jigon rahusa low-pass. Za'a iya saita matakin matukin jirgi tare da mai ƙarfin wuta a 19 - amma, wannan ba yawanci ba dole bane saboda matakin yana dacewa koyaushe ba tare da ƙara mai amfani ba.

A zahiri, ƙara mai amfani a nan yana rage rabuwa kawai saboda an sauya yanayin sautin matukan jirgin sama idan aka kwatanta da 38xHz mahara yawa.

Oscillator na 7.6MHz an gina shi ta hanyar haɗa kristal 7.6MHz tsakanin fil 13 & 14. A aikace, an haɗa wannan kristal ɗin a layi ɗaya tare da inverter ciki. Kristal yana saita lokutan oscillation, yayin da masu karfin 27pF ke ba da madaidaicin saukarwa.

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Hoto.5 (b): Anan ne yadda za'a girka sassan a saman kwamatin PC don a gina fasalin mai karfin wuta. Lura cewa IC1, VC1 da 68nH & 680nH inductor sune na'urorin hawan dutsen kuma an ɗora su a gefe na tagulla kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin siffa.5 (a)

Za'a iya raba mai rabawa (ko kuma shirin shirye-shiryen) ta amfani da juyawa a fil 15, 16, 17 & 18 (D0-D3). Ana shigar da waɗannan abubuwan da ake buƙata a kullun ta hanyar masu tsayayya 10kΩ kuma an lalace ƙasa lokacin da aka rufe hanyoyin juyawa. Jadawalin 1 yana nuna yadda aka saita juyawa don zaɓar ɗaya daga cikin nau'ikan sauƙaƙe watsa 14.

Fitar oscillator RF tana a kusa da 9. Wannan wani tsari ne na Colpitts oscillator kuma an kunna shi ta amfani da inductor L1, mai ƙarfin 33pF & 22pF mai ƙarfin wuta da Vic1 dicde dicde.

Fixedaƙƙarfan ƙarfin 33pF yana yin ayyuka biyu. Na farko, ya toshe wutar lantarki na DC akan VC1 don hana gudana daga gudana zuwa L1. Na biyu, saboda yana cikin jerin tare da VC1, yana rage tasirin canje-canje a cikin ƙarfin varicap, kamar yadda “aka gani” ta fil 9.

Wannan, bi da bi, yana rage kewayon mitar RF oscillator sabili da canje-canje a cikin ƙarfin sarrafa madaidaiciyar varicap kuma yana ba da damar mafi kyawun madafin kulle lokaci.

Hakanan, ƙarfin 10pF yana hana DC gudanawar gudana zuwa L1 daga fil 9. valuearancin darajar shi ma yana nufin cewa ana daidaita taswirar daɗaɗa kuma wannan yana ba da damar mafi girman Q don abubuwan kewaye da kuma sauƙaƙe farawar oscillator.

Modulating oscillator

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Hoto 6: ga yadda za'a iya gyara allon saboda fasalin da yake amfani da batir. Abin kawai shine barin fita D1, ZD1 & REG1 da shigar da hanyoyin haɗin waya biyu.

Alamar fitarwa mai hade yana bayyana a fil 5 kuma ana ciyar dashi ta hanyar 10μF capacitor zuwa trimpot VR3. Wannan datimpot yana saita zurfin kayan aiki. Daga can, ana ciyar da siginar alama ta hanyar wani μan ƙarfin 10μF da masu adawa da 10k two biyu don varicap diode VC1.

Kamar yadda aka ambata a baya, ana amfani da fitowar makullin kulle lokaci (PLL) a fil 7 don sarrafa mitar mai ɗauka. Wannan fitowar tana fitar da babban riba na Darlington transistor Q1 kuma wannan, bi da bi, yana amfani da wutar lantarki mai sarrafawa zuwa VC1 ta hanyar masu tsayayya guda biyu na 3.3kΩ da kuma 10kΩ isolating resistor.

2.2.arfin ƙarfin 3.3nF a ƙwanƙwalwar mai matsakaita XNUMXk two yana ba da matsanancin matattakala mai ƙarfi.

Providedarin matattara ana bayar da shi ta mai ƙarfin 100μF da 100Ω resistor wanda aka haɗa a jere tsakanin ginin Q1 da mai tarawa. Mai adawar 100Ω yana ba da izinin transistor don amsa canje-canje na lokaci, yayin da mai ƙarfin 100 filterF yana ba da tace ƙarancin mita. Ana samar da ƙarin matattara mai ƙarfi ta hanyar ƙarfin lantarki na 47nF wanda aka haɗa kai tsaye tsakanin ginin Q1 da mai tarawa.

Ωarwar 5.1kΩ mai haɗin kai zuwa 5V dogo yana ba da kaya mai tara kaya. Wannan resistor din yana jawo mai tattarawar Q1 mai girma yayin da aka kashe transistor.

Fitowar FM

M fitarwa RF fitarwa yana bayyana a fil 11 kuma an ciyar da shi zuwa matattarar wucewa na LC mai wucewa. Aikinsa shine cire duk wani jituwa da aka samar ta kayan aiki kuma a fitowar oscillator RF. Ainihin, matattarar ta wuce madaidaiciya a cikin bandarar 88-108MHz amma tana birgima mitar siginar a sama da kasa wannan.

Filterarashi yana da ƙarancin 75Ω kuma wannan ya dace da nauyin IC1 na pin 11 da kewaye kewaye.

Masu adawa da jerin 39Ω biyu da 56W shunt resistor suna haɓaka mai ƙarewa kuma wannan yana rage matakin siginar cikin eriya. Wannan attenuator ya zama dole don tabbatar da cewa mai watsa aiki yana aiki a iyakar damar da ta dace na 10μW.

Power wadata

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Hoto.7: wannan zane yana nuna cikakkun bayanan iska na coil L1. Dole ne a datse tsohon don kada ya zauna sama da 13mm sama da saman jirgin. Yi amfani da silicone sealant don riƙe ɗayan a wurin, idan ya cancanta.

Powerarfi don da'irar an samo shi daga ko dai 9-16V DC plugpack ko baturin 6V.

Game da samar da kayan wuta, ana wadatar da wutar ta hanyar kunnawa / kashewa da kuma diode D5 wanda ke ba da kariya ta hanyar polarity. ZD1 tana kare da'irar ta hana karfin wutar lantarki, yayin da REG1 mai tsarawa ta samar da ingantaccen + 1V dogo don wutar lantarki.

Bayan haka, don aikin baturi, ba a amfani da ZD1, D1 da REG1 kuma hanyoyin haɗin D1 da REG1 sun gajarta. Babban cikar wadata don IC1 shine 7V, don haka aikin batir 6V ya dace; misali 4 x AAA sel a cikin mai riƙe 4 x AAA.

Construction

Kwamitin PC guda ɗaya 06112021 kuma aunawa kawai 78 x 50mm tana riƙe dukkan sassan don Micromitter. An saka wannan cikin filastik yanayi wanda za'a auna shine 83 x 54 x 30mm.

Da farko, bincika komitin PC ɗin ya dace sosai cikin batun. Ana iya buƙatar sasanninta don ƙwanƙwasa akan ƙasan kusurwar akan akwatin. Wannan yayi, duba cewa ramuka don DC soket da RCA soket fil ne daidai madaidaitan. Idan tsohon L1 bashi da tushe (duba ƙasa), ana hawa ta hanyar tura shi cikin rami wanda kawai ya ishe ta ɗauka. Duba cewa wannan rami yana da madaidaicin diamita.

Fig.5 (a) & Fig.5 (b) suna nuna yadda aka sanya sassan aka hau kan kwamatin PC. Aiki na farko shine shigar da wasu bangarori masu ɗauke da kayan saman-dutse a gefe na tagulla na kwamatin PC. Wadannan bangarorin sun hada da IC1, VC1 da inductor guda biyu.

Za ku buƙaci baƙin ƙarfe mai ƙoshin wuta, tweezers, haske mai ƙarfi da gilashin ƙara girman girma don wannan aikin. Musamman, tip ɗin ƙarfe mai siyarwa dole ne a canza shi ta hanyar jera shi zuwa sifar ɗaukar hoto.

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Zai fi kyau a shigar da sassa huɗu na dutsen da farko (gami da IC), kafin shigar da sauran sassan a saman kwamatin PC. Ka lura da yadda jikin lu'ulu'un ya ta'allaka a gefen tsaffin biyun 10kΩ (hoton hagu).

IC1 da varicap diode (VC1) sune na'urori masu izini, don haka tabbatar da jan ragamar su kamar yadda aka nuna akan mai rufi. An sanya kowane sashi ta hanyar riƙe shi a cikin wuri tare da hancin sannan sannan yaja guda ɗaya (ko fil) farko. Wancan ya yi, duba cewa an daidaita ɓangaren aikin kafin sanya farashi mai kyau a gaba.

Dangane da batun IC, ya fi kyau a fara ɗaukar nauyin silsila ɗaya kafin a saka shi a kwamiti. Yana da haka kawai batun batun dumama kowane gwal tare da ƙarar baƙin ƙarfe don siyar dashi a cikin wurin.

Tabbatar yin amfani da haske mai ƙarfi da gilashin ƙara girman wannan aikin. Wannan ba zai ba da damar aiki kawai ba amma kuma zai ba ku damar bincika kowane haɗin kamar yadda aka yi. Musamman, tabbatar cewa babu ɗan gajeren wando tsakanin waƙoƙi masu kusa ko fil na IC.

A ƙarshe, yi amfani da multimeter ɗinku don bincika cewa kowane fil yana da alaƙa da waƙar sa a wajan PC ɗin.

Sauran sassan an haɗa su a saman kwamatin PC a yanayin da aka saba. Idan kana gina tubalin da zai iya amfani da wirinin, sai a bi zane mai cike da hoton da aka nuna a cikin siffa.5. Bayan haka, don nau'in ƙarfin baturi, barin ZD1 da DC soket kuma maye gurbin D1 & REG1 tare da hanyoyin haɗin waya kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin siffa.6.

Babban taro

Za a fara babban taron ta hanyar shigar da mahaɗin da hanyoyin haɗin waya. Tebur 3 yana nuna lambobin launi na resistor amma kuma muna bada shawara cewa kayi amfani da multimeter na dijital don bincika ƙimar. Lura cewa yawancin masu tsaurin ra'ayi an saka su a ƙarshen-tsare don ajiyar sarari.

Da zarar masu adawa sun shiga, shigar da matattarar PC a fitarwa na eriya da wuraren gwajin TP GND da TP1. Wannan zai sauƙaƙa sauƙaƙan haɗi zuwa waɗannan maki daga baya.

Bayan haka, shigar da abubuwan shinge na VR1-VR3 da kwandon PC-Dutsen RCA. Ana iya saka DC ɗin soket, diode D1 da ZD1 don siginar da aka kunna ta wuta.

Masu ƙarfin za su iya zuwa na gaba, suna kulawa don shigar da nau'ikan electrolytic tare da madaidaiciyar iyawa. Ana iya shigar da nau'ikan electrolytic na NP (mara izini) ko bipolar (BP) ta kowace hanya. Matsa su har ƙasa zuwa cikin ramukarsu na hawa, don kada su zauna sama da 13mm sama da kwamatin PC (wannan don ba da damar murfin ya dace daidai lokacin da aka saka baturan AAA a ƙarƙashin sandar PC a cikin akwatin).

Hakanan za'a iya shigar da daskararru na yumbu a wannan matakin. Jadawalin 2 yana nuna lambobin alamar su, don sauƙaƙe a gare ku don gano ƙimar.

Nada L1

Fig.7 yana nuna cikakkun bayanan iska don coil L1. Tana ƙunshe da nauyin 2.5 na 0.5 - 1mm mai farin ƙarfe na farin ƙarfe (ECW) a kan matattarar taɗaɗɗen tsohon da aka haɗa tare da narkar da F29 ferrite. Madadin haka, zaku iya amfani da duk wani kasuwancin da aka sanya 2.5 mai matattarar mai canza shi.

Akwai nau'ikan masu samar da abubuwa guda biyu - daya tare da tushe mai pin 2 (wanda za'a iya siyar dashi kai tsaye ga kwamiti na PC) kuma ɗayan wanda yazo ba tare da tushe ba. Idan tsohon yana da tushe, da farko ya zama a gajarta shi da kusan 2mm, don tsayin dakarsa gaba daya (gami da ginin) shine 13mm. Ana iya yin wannan ta amfani da goge-goge-goge.

Wancan ya yi, iska iska, dakatar da ƙarshen kai tsaye a kan fil kuma solder coil cikin matsayi. Ka lura cewa juyawa suna dab da juna (watau coil yana kusa da rauni).

Danna don yafi girma

Wannan hoton yana nuna yadda aka ƙarar da shari'ar don ɗaukar ramin RCA, ramin wutan lantarki da jagorancin eriya.

A madadin haka, idan tsohon bai da tushe, yanke abin wuya a wannan ƙarshen, to, za a ɗora rami a cikin kwamiti na PC a matsayin L1 domin tsohon ya kasance mai ƙarfi. Wancan ya yi, tura tsohon a ramin sa, sannan ya kunna murhun bakin ciki don mafi ƙarancin iska yana zaune akan saman jirgin.

Tabbatar cewa a kwace rufin daga waya yana ƙarewa gabanin sayar da abubuwan kaiwa ga allon PC. Bayan haka za'a iya amfani da san dabs na silicone sealant don tabbatar da cewa murfin murfin ya kasance a wurin.

A ƙarshe, ana iya saka rigar ferrite a cikin tsohuwar kuma a zana ta saboda samansa ya kusan faɗuwa tare da saman tsohon. Yi amfani da kayan aikin filastik ko kayan aiki na tagulla don ƙwanƙwasa a cikin tsintsiyar - maƙallan ƙwalƙwalwa na yau da kullun na iya fasa ferrite.

Yanzu ana iya shigar da Crystal X1. Wannan an ɗora shi ta farko yana karkatar da gwanayensa ta hanyar digiri 90, saboda haka yana zaune a sararin samaniya a gaban masu tsayayya 10kΩ biyu na hoto (duba hoto). Yanzu za a iya kammala taron majalisar ta hanyar shigar da DIP sauya, transistor Q1, mai tsarawa (REG1) da jagorar eriya.

Eriyawan shine kawai rabin-kalaman dipole nau'in. Ya ƙunshi tsawon 1.5m na waya mai shinge mai shinge, tare da ƙarshen ƙarshen sayar da shi zuwa tashar eriyar eriya. Wannan yakamata ya bada sakamako mai kyau gwargwadon yadda watsawar ke damuwa.

Ana shirya karar

Za'a iya juyar da hankali yanzu ga batun filastik. Wannan yana buƙatar ramuka a wannan ƙarshen don ɗaukar ramin RCA, ƙari ramuka a wannan ƙarshen don ginin eriya da kwandon wutar lantarki na DC (idan ana amfani da shi).

Kari akan haka, tilas a saka rami a cikin murfin don sauyawar wutar.

Danna don yafi girma

Za'a iya yin amfani da da'irar daga sel 4 x 1.5V AAA idan kuna so ku mai da naúrar. Lura cewa mai riƙe baturin yana buƙatar wasu canji don dacewa da duk abin da ke cikin lamarin (duba rubutu).

Hakanan ya zama dole don cire zanen ciki na ciki tare da bangon shari'ar zuwa zurfin 15mm a saman saman akwatin, don dacewa da allon PC. Mun yi amfani da ƙusoshin kaifi don cire waɗannan amma ana iya amfani da ƙaramin ɗan ƙwayar a maimakon. Wancan ya yi, kuna buƙatar cire ƙarshen haƙarƙarin a ƙarƙashin murfin don share firam na RCA da DC. Alama na gaba-gaba sannan za'a iya haɗe da murfin.

Siffar da ke amfani da batir yana da mai riƙe AA ta wayar hannu wanda aka sanya a sama a cikin akwatin, tare da tushen mai riƙewa tare da gefen jan ƙarfe na kwamatin PC. Akwai kawai isasshen ɗakin don wannan mai riƙe da kwamiti na PC don hawa a cikin akwati tare da abubuwan da ke biyo baya:

(1). Dukkan sassan banda na canjin wutan lantarki dole ne kar yawo saman farfajiyar kwamatin PC sama da 5mm. Wannan yana nufin cewa dole ne masu wutan lantarki su zauna kusa da hukumar PC kuma dole ne a yanke tsohuwar L13 zuwa tsawon daidai.

(2). Mai riƙewa cikin sallar AAA kusan 1mm yayi kauri sosai kuma yakamata a shigar dashi ƙasa a kowane ƙarshen, saboda sel suyi aiki kadan daga saman abin riƙewa.

(3). Firam na RCA safa kuma na iya buƙatar aske dan kadan, saboda babu wani rata tsakanin akwatin da murfi bayan taro.

Yarda da ACA

Ana buƙatar wannan siginar rediyon watsawa ta sitiriyo FM don yin aiki da Gidan Rediyon Sadarwa na Interarancin Kayan Kayan Kayan (LIPD) Lasisin 2000, kamar yadda Hukumar Sadarwar Australiya ta bayar.

Musamman, mitar watsawa dole ne ya kasance tsakanin mitar 88-108MHz a EIRP (ivalentaƙwalwar Idotropically Radiated Power) na 10mW kuma tare da motsin FM ba wanda ya fi ƙarfin bandir na 180kHz. Baza watsawar ta zama iri daya kamar tashar rediyo mai watsa shirye-shirye (ko maimaitawa ko tashar fassara) tana aiki a cikin lasisin.

Ana iya samun ƙarin bayani a kan www.aca.gov.au shafin yanar gizo.

Bayanin lasisi na aji don LIPDs za'a iya sauke shi daga:
www.aca.gov.au/aca_home/legislation/radcomm/class_licences/lipd.htm

Gwaji & daidaitawa

Wannan bangare shine ainihin abun ciye-ciye. Ayyukan farko shine daidaita L1 domin RF oscillator yayi aiki akan madaidaicin kewayon. Don yin wannan, bi wannan matakan mataki-mataki:

(1). Saita mitar watsawa ta amfani da juyawa DIP, kamar yadda aka nuna a Jadawalin 1. Ka lura cewa kuna buƙatar zaɓi mita wanda ba ayi amfani da shi azaman tashar kasuwanci ba a yankin ku, in ba haka ba kutse zai zama matsala.

(2). Haɗa babban jagorancin ka da ƙwaƙwalwa don TP GND da ingantaccen jagorancin ka daga 8 na IC1. Zaɓi kewayon DC volts akan mita, yi amfani da wutar lantarki a Micromicer kuma duba cewa ka sami karatu wanda ke kusa da 5V idan kana amfani da toshewar DC.

A madadin, mitan ya kamata ya nuna wutar lantarki ta baturi idan kana amfani da sel AAA.

(3). Matsar da miminimin jagorar tabbatacce zuwa TP1 kuma daidaita ragin cikin L1 don karatun kusan 2V.

Danna don yafi girma

Mai riƙe baturin yana zaune a kasan shari'ar, ƙarƙashin kwamfutar PC.

Yanzu oscillator yana gyara daidai. Ba'a buƙatar ƙarin daidaitawa zuwa L1 ba idan kun canza zuwa wani mita a cikin ƙungiyar da aka zaɓa. Koyaya, idan kun canza zuwa mita wanda ke cikin ɗayan rukunin, L1 dole ne a sake daidaita shi don karatun 2V a TP1.

Saitin abubuwan ajiyar banki

Hoto.8: cikakken girman zane-zane na gaba-gaba.

Abinda ya rage yanzu shine daidaita trimpots VR1-VR3 don saita matakin siginar da zurfin ma'ana. Matakan mataki-mataki shine kamar haka:

(1). Sanya VR1, VR2 & VR3 zuwa matsayin tsakiyarsu. Za'a iya daidaita VR1 da VR2 ta hanyar wucewa da sikirin da zazzagewa ta hanyar cibiyoyin RCA μ, yayin da VR3 za'a iya daidaita ta ta motsa μF capacitor a gabanta zuwa gefe ɗaya.

(2). Duba sitiriyo FM ko rediyo zuwa mitar mai watsawa. Ya kamata a saka muryar FM da mai watsa ta tazarar kusan mita biyu.

(3). Haɗa asalin siginar sitiriyo (misali, na'urar kunna CD) a cikin abubuwan shigar sojan RCA kuma bincika cewa sun karɓi kyautar ta rediyo.

Fig.9: Tsarin cikakken sikelin cikakke don kwamatin PC.

(4). Daidaita VR3 anticlockwise har sai mai nuna sitiriyo ya fita akan mai karɓar, sannan ka daidaita VR3 a kowane lokaci daga wannan matsayin zuwa 1 / 8th na bi da bi.

(5). Daidaita VR1 da VR2 don mafi kyawun sauti daga mai kunnawa - zaku cire haɗin siginar na ɗan lokaci don yin kowane daidaitawa. Akwai isasshen siginar don '' kawar 'da hayaniyar baya amma ba tare da wata murdiya ba.

Lura musamman cewa dole ne a saita VR1 da VR2 zuwa matsayi guda, don kula da ma'aunin hagu da dama.

Shi ke nan - sabon stereo FM Micromitter yana shirye don aiki.

Tebur 2: Lambobin Ka'idoji
darajar Lambar IEC Lambar EIA
47nF 47n 473
10nF 10n 103
2.2nF 2n2 222
330pF 330p 331
150pF 150p 151
39pF 39p 39
33pF 33p 33
27pF 27p 27
22pF 22p 22
10pF 10p 10
3.3pF 3p3 3.3
Tebur 3: Lambobin Resistor Launi
No. darajar Code 4-Band (1%) Code 5-Band (1%)
1 22kΩ launin ruwan kasa mai ruwan hoda ja ja mai launin ja mai launin ja mai launin ruwan kasa
8 10kΩ launin ruwan kasa mai launin ruwan kasa mai launin shuɗi launin ruwan kasa baki mai launin ja mai launin ruwan kasa
1 5.1kΩ launin ruwan kasa mai launin ja mai launin ruwan kasa launin ruwan kasa mai launin shuɗi mai launin ruwan kasa
2 3.3kΩ launin ruwan kasa mai launin ja launin ruwan kasa mai launin ruwan kasa mai launin shuɗi
1 100Ω launin ruwan kasa baki mai launin ruwan kasa launin ruwan kasa baki mai launin baƙar fata mai launin ruwan kasa
1 56Ω launin ruwan kasa mai launin shuɗi mai launin shuɗi launin shuɗi mai launin shuɗi mai launin shuɗi
2 39Ω launin ruwan kasa fari mai launin shuɗi launin ruwan kasa fari mai launin shuɗi launin ruwan kasa
sassa List

1 Kwamitin PC, lambar 06112021, 78 x 50mm.
Akwatin filastik 1, 83 x 54 x 31mm
Alamar farin gaban 1, 79 x 49mm
1 7.6MHz ko kristal 7.68MHz
1 SPDT ƙananan ƙananan juyawa (Jaycar ST-0300, Altronics S 1415 ko equiv.) (S5)
2 Sojojin PC-Dutsen RCA (switched) (Altronics P 0209, Jaycar PS 0279)
1 2.5mm PC-Dutsen soket na wutar lantarki
1 4 hanyar DIP canzawa
1 2.5 yana juya matattakala matattara (L1)
1 4mm F29 ferrite tarkace
1 680nH (0.68μH) inductor na dutsen (yanayin 1210A) (Farnell 608-282 ko makamancin haka)
1 68nH saman dutse inductor (0603 case) (Farnell 323-7886 ko makamancin haka)
1 100mm tsawon 1mm amman jan karfe
1 50mm tsawon 0.8mm tinned waya na karfe
1 1.6m tsinkaye waya
3 tasoshin PC
1 4 x AAA wayar da aka riƙe (ana buƙatar aikin baturi)
4 Kwayoyin AAA (waɗanda ake buƙata don aikin baturi)
3 10kΩ a tsaye tsararru (VR1-VR3)

Semiconductors

1 BH1417F Rohm mai hawa-sitiriyar FM sitiriyo (IC1)
1 78L05 mai ƙaramin ƙarfin lantarki (REG1)
1 MPSA13 fassarar Darlington (Q1)
1 ZMV833ATA ko MV2109 (VC1)
1 24V 1W zener diode (ZD1)
1 1N914, 1N4148 diode (D1)

Capacitors

2 100μF 16VW PC mai aikin lantarki
5 10μF 25VW PC mai aikin lantarki
2 1μ bipolar electrolytic
2 1μF 16VW lantarki
1 47nF (.047μF) Polinster na MKT
2 10nF (.01μF) yumbu
3 2.2nF (.0022μF) Polinster na MKT
1 330pF yumbu
2 150pF yumbu
1 39pF yumbu
1 33pF yumbu
2 27pF yumbu
1 22pF yumbu
1 10pF yumbu
1 3.3pF yumbu

Resistors (0.25W, 1%)

1 22kΩ 1 100Ω
8 10kΩ 1 56Ω
1 5.1kΩ 2 39Ω
2 3.3kΩ

bayani dalla-dalla
Mitar yadawa 87.7MHz zuwa 88.9MHz a cikin matakan 0.2MHz
106.7MHz zuwa 107.9MHz a cikin matakan 0.2MHz (duka-duka 14)
Total murdiya Harmonic (THD) yawanci 0.1%
Gabatarwa yawanci 50ms
Matatar Passarancin Mallama 15kHz / 20dB / shekaru goma
Raba tashoshi yawanci 40dB
Daidaita tashar a ciki? 2dB (ana iya daidaita shi tare da kayan ajiya)
Matatar jirgi 15%
RF fitarwa (EIRP) yawanci 10μW lokacin amfani da inbuilt attenuator
Supply ƙarfin lantarki 4-6V
Kawo yanzu 28MA a 5V
Matakin shigar da sauti 220mV RMS mafi girma a 400Hz da 1dB matsawa ragewa
Kuna iya siyan samfuran da aka ambata a wannan labarin anan:

ST0300: SUB-MINI TOGGLE SPDT SOLDER TAG TUNATARWA

Za a iya saukar da waɗannan abubuwan da aka saukar don wannan labarin: